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Steps of Communication PDF Print E-mail
Written by Virag   
Sunday, 11 January 2009 22:57

In continuation with, An Understanding of the paradigm of Communication



Communication Process

(Steps in Communication)

By Dr Savio Pereira and Virag


A marriage is a relationship between a man and woman based on commitment and trust. An effective communication process has to be sustained between two persons in a committed relationship. So, in this article we shall discuss about inter-personal communication. An inter-personal communication is a cyclical model which includes feedback. The present husband-wife relationship is an unequal relationship which means that there is a mis-balance of communication channel between the two as is evident from the current palatable scenario of marriage, its decaying and decreasing age and the corresponding annual acceleration in the suicide rates of married men vis-à-vis married women


Communication is an exchange of ideas, facts and opinions by which the receiver of the message shares meaning and understanding with another. A Process is a course of action.  Communication is thus a process that uses a set of media to transmit ideas, facts and feelings from one person to another. Effective communication is possible only when there is an effective bi-directional communication channel.


A good communicator must understand the receiving and understanding capabilities of the recipient and not only of the transmitting message as also their effect.


Aristotle described the communication process in “The Rhetoric” and involves the Speaker, speech, and audience.           



Shannon-Weaver described the information theory of communication which involves the following steps: Information (source), transmitter, channel, receiver and destination.


David K Berlo describes the Basic process theory and identifies 9 elements of communication which includes Source, encoder, message, channel, receiver, decoder, meaning, feedback and noise.

The Steps in the communication process are Ideation, Encoding, Transmission, Receiving, Decoding, Action, and Acceptance.


Elements of a Communication process (Berlo)


The Sequence of Communication of a Message is as follows:


  1. IDEATION is the process of new thought or idea generated by the sender which can be analogous to starting a new life together.
  2. ENCODING means putting information into a form that allows it to be transmitted through a particular medium and it depends on fluency as in providing an efficient communication channel.
  3. TRANSMISSION is the process of sending, propagating and receiving a message through channel or medium of communication i.e. commencement of effective communication,
  4. RECEIVING is the message received by the receiver analogous to the start of a relationship.
  5. DECODING is the interpreting, and understanding the message by using both verbal and non-verbal (body language) cues of the message which is the most important part and here the understanding between the individuals’ works at a micro level.
  6. ACTING is the behavioral change shown by receiver of the message which is again reflected in the responsiveness towards certain messages and non – responsiveness towards others. A proper balance between the two is essential to a relationship’s success.
  7. ACCEPTANCE is the step where the receiver has understood the message clearly and gives the ‘thumbs up’ as accepting the message, this is a very important part of communication and is absent in most of the relationships that break.
  8. FEEDBACK is included in inter-personal communication and is a continuous process of clarification and verification of “communication noises”. If it comes solo without ACCEPTANCE, the results are dangerous, unpredictable and often set wrong trends.



The sender and receiver have their own contexts, perceptions, attitudes (mental makeup), beliefs, self-concept, communication skills, and knowledge (experience). It is important to use Verbal skills to clarify meanings, and Non-verbal skills to “Read” body language and face expressions.


The “communication noises” are the gaps or distortions in the message, which causes the misunderstandings which arises from a message along the channel of communication.


This noise has to be reduced by clarifying and reading using verbal and non-verbal skills. Clarification and maintaining a constant channel of communication will help reduce the ‘Conflicts’ in marriage, because of mis-communication.


Continued at The Cs of Communication

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Steps of Communication
Sunday, 11 January 2009

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